Statistical Analysis and Countermeasures of Dangerous Chemical Accidents in China from 2011 to 2013

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Abstract: Statistics 569 from hazardous chemical accidents in January 2011 Yi December 2013 occurred in China, from the time of occurrence of dangerous chemicals accidents had occurred, incidents of physical appearance, hazardous chemical type, links and explanation, etc. Statistical analysis was carried out. The results show that: April - August is the month of frequent occurrence of dangerous chemical accidents; Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong, Hubei, Sichuan and other provinces are the provinces with high occurrence of dangerous chemical accidents; production and transportation links are the most important links in the occurrence of dangerous chemical accidents; production processes, 1O: 00 ~ 12: 00 and 17:00 a 18:00 is the high incidence of accidents in the period in which the explosion was an accident most types of machinery and insecurity and the human factor is the most important factor in the accident; For the transport link, 1 : O0 - 12 : 00 is the high-incidence period of the accident, and the leakage is the type with the most accidents. Finally, based on statistical results, we propose relevant countermeasures to further reduce the accidents of dangerous chemicals in China.

Keywords: hazardous chemicals; accident statistics analysis; countermeasures

0 Introduction

Hazardous chemical accidents are accidents caused by dangerous chemicals that endanger human life, property, safety and environmental protection. They are characterized by abruptness, diversity in form, severity of hazards, and difficult disposal. Our country is dangerous chemicals production and use of power, dangerous chemical accidents continue to occur, such as the 2012 February 28, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Zhaoxian Kerr guanidine nitrate chemical plant exploded, killing 25 people were killed and 46 people were injured; November 28, 2013, Sinopec Huang East oil pipeline leak explosion major accidents, killing 62 people were killed and 136 injured. These accidents have seriously endangered the lives and property safety of the people and caused huge economic losses and social impacts.

A systematic study on dangerous chemical accidents has been carried out. The reduction of dangerous chemical accidents is one of the important research issues in the field of safety production in China. In recent years, a number of domestic scholars have conducted research on hazardous chemical accidents. Zhao to the military, "Tsung's _3 respectively hazardous chemical accidents of 2005 to 2008 and from 2006 to 2010 occurred statistical analysis; Yan Li Yong, Shen Xiaoyan, respectively, of dangerous chemicals transportation accident statistical analysis; Zhanglian Fang and other dangerous chemicals Case analysis was conducted on the incidents of storage; Du Hongyan and others analyzed the accidents in the petrochemical industry at home and abroad. It can be seen from existing studies that the current research on the statistical analysis of hazardous chemical accidents mainly proceeds from the following perspectives: 1 the time of the accident; 2 the location of the accident; 3 the physical appearance of the accident; 4 the link of the accident and the reason. Most of the existing research focuses mainly on one or several perspectives, lacking synthesis and cross-analysis between different perspectives.

After 2011, China issued the Regulations "dangerous chemical safety regulations" and so on, our management of hazardous chemicals into a new stage j. To study the characteristics of hazardous chemical accidents in China under the new phase, considering the above article all angles, hazardous chemical accidents based on information released by China Association for Chemical Safety, for January 2011 Yi December 2013 incidents of dangerous chemicals A comprehensive statistical analysis was conducted and suggestions were made for further reduction of hazardous chemical accidents in China.

1 Analysis by accident time

1 . 1 accident year analysis

According to the accident information released by the China Chemical Safety Association, a total of 569 hazardous chemical accidents occurred in China from 2011 to 2013 , with a total of 638 deaths and 2,283 injuries . Figure 1 combines the accident information j of the China Chemical Safety Association from 2006 to 2010 and counts the number of accidents of dangerous chemicals in China since 2006 . It can be seen that from 2012 to 2013 , the number of dangerous chemical accidents in China has decreased significantly compared with previous years. This is mainly due to the promulgation and implementation of the new “Regulations on the Administration of Dangerous Chemicals Safety” in 201 1 and the establishment of a series of laws, regulations, and national standards that are accompanied by it, which has improved the management of dangerous chemicals in China. .

Figure 1 Number of Hazardous Chemical Accidents in China, 2006-2013

1 . 2 accident month analysis

From the point of view month, every year the number of accidents hazardous chemicals have some volatility (Figure 2), but on the whole, in January and February, the number of accidents is relatively small. Figure 3 shows the number of dangerous chemical accidents occurring in China in each month from 2011 to 2013. It can be seen from the figure that the period from April to August is the month with frequent occurrence of dangerous chemical accidents in China. From April to August , the areas where China's petroleum and chemical companies are relatively concentrated are in periods of warm weather and high temperatures. When the weather is warm, it can easily make the employees' attention less focused. Sustained high temperatures will lead to more obvious changes in the physical and psychological conditions of the on-site workers, and will have a greater impact on the delivery status of the materials, production reaction process, and control of process parameters, and will also adversely affect the safe operation of equipment and equipment such as container pipes. influences.

Figure 22011--2013 per month for each year of accident

Figure 32011-- of dangerous chemical accident analysis in January 2013

1 . 3 Analysis of the specific time period of the accident

From the point of view of production, most of the production of dangerous chemicals occurred during the day and evening ( Figure 4) . The number of accidents that occurred in the early morning was relatively small, because most companies only ensured the smooth operation of the device in the early morning, and rarely carried out operations such as loading and unloading maintenance. 1O : 00 - 12 : O0 and 17 : 00 ~ 18 : 0O is the period with the highest number of accidents. This is also the time when the worker is about to leave work. It is easy to cause mistakes in the operation due to negligence.

From the perspective of the transport link 1 : O0 - 12 : 00 is the frequent occurrence period of transport accidents ( Figure 4) . With different production processes, the number of dangerous chemicals transportation accident in the early morning 1:00 ~ 8:00 time period has remained at a relatively high number of levels. This is due to the relevant laws and regulations and transportation cost factors, most of the dangerous chemicals transport vehicles choose to transport at this time. In addition, the early morning hours can easily lead to driver fatigue driving, coupled with the darkness of the sky, accidents such as car accidents are more likely to occur.

2 According to the accident site analysis

Based 2011--2013 the number of years the provinces accidents of dangerous chemicals, dangerous chemicals production each province, storage links the number of accidents, the number of dangerous chemicals transportation accidents, the death toll and number of injured, use SPSS21. 0 The clustering analysis of the data m . The clustering results and the number of accidents in each province are shown in Table 1 .

Table 1 201 - Results of 2013 Provincial Clustering of Dangerous Chemical Accidents in China

Among them, the number of dangerous chemical accidents and deaths in the first five provinces accounted for 43 . 2 % and 37 . 1 %. The five provinces due to economic and geographical constraints, the number of oil and chemical industry companies are ranked in the national top ten, the number of enterprises in Jiangsu and Shandong more than 4000. The second category includes 13 provinces. The number of hazardous chemical accidents and the number of casualties in these provinces are relatively small compared to the first provinces. Excluding the two provinces of Gansu and Xinjiang , the GDP of the remaining provinces in 2013 exceeded RMB 1 trillion in total . The number of companies in the chemical industry is relatively high. The number of accidents and the number of casualties among hazardous chemicals in the third provinces are the least. This is due to economic underdevelopment or geographical causes.

Fig. 4 Analysis of specific time periods of hazardous chemical accidents in China from 2011 to 2013

3 Analysis of accidental physical appearance

From the point of view of the types of hazardous chemical accidents, explosions, leaks, and fires accounted for 94 % of all accidents . 4 %. Leakage is the type with the highest number of accidents. The number of explosion accidents was second only to the leakage accidents, but the explosion was the type of accident that caused the largest death toll ( Table 2) . This is due to the explosion destroyed stronger than other types of accidents, and have instantaneous explosion l students, staff often do not have time after the occurrence of the withdrawal.

Table 2 Statistical Analysis of Hazardous Chemical Accident Types

In the production process, the explosion is the main type of accident, and the number of accidents accounts for 40 % of the accidents in the production process . This is because there are a large number of pressure vessels in the production process, and physical explosions are more likely to occur after the accident; in the transport process, leakage occurs. It is the main type of accident, accounting for 67 % of all transport accidents . See Figure 5 and Figure 6 .

Figure 5 Percentage of accidents in production

Figure 6 Percentage of accidents in transport

4According to the accident and analysis of causes

Hazardous chemical accidents can be classified into six links according to their link classification: production, transportation, storage, sales, use and disposal . Figure 7 shows the number of accidents and deaths at each link .

Figure 72011-- of hazardous chemical accidents link analysis 2013

From 2011 to 2013 , the number of accidents in production and transportation occurred in China in the number of hazardous chemical accidents. The number of accidents and deaths accounted for 76 . 1 % and 84 . 3 %. This is because the production and transportation links are two important links in the hazardous chemicals industry. Most of the semi-finished products in the petroleum and chemical industries are dangerous and widely exist in the production and transportation sectors. In addition, the production process involves more operations and the complexity of operations is much greater than other links, which makes the number of accidents and deaths in the production process greater than other links.

4 . 1 hazardous chemical production processes and causes of accidents

From 2011 to 2013 , there were 240 accidents in the production of dangerous chemicals in China , accounting for 42 . 3 % is the most frequent accident. A total of 240 accidents involving the production of dangerous chemicals caused a total of 303 deaths and 1,450 injuries. As dangerous chemicals are mostly used as raw materials or semi-finished products in the production process, and the production process is relatively more operational than other links, under the same regulatory conditions, the probability of occurrence of dangerous chemical accidents in the production process is the greatest. In the analysis of the cause of the accident, 110 accidents were not announced, and 130 accidents were reported.

The direct causes of dangerous chemical accidents are divided into: 1) the unsafe state of machinery, material, or the environment; 2) unsafe behavior . A total of 73 hazardous chemical accidents were caused by unsafe conditions of machinery, materials, or the environment. There were accidents involving dangerous chemicals from machinery, materials, and the environment, which were 4l , 22 and 10 respectively . In the event of a dangerous chemical accident caused by a mechanical accident, equipment aging and design problems are the main factors leading to the accident. The number of accidents caused by humans accounted for 57. The main factors were illegal operations, operational errors, and illegal production.

4 . 2 analysis of hazardous chemicals accidents transport links

From 2011 to 2013 , there were 193 hazardous chemical transport accidents and 235 deaths in China. Among them, there were 156 road transport accidents , 34 pipeline accidents , 2 railway accidents , and 1 ship accident .

The following is a separate analysis of road transport accidents. Road transport accidents are divided into non-travel accident and travel accident condition of the vehicle, running into traffic accidents and accident and non-accident J. The number of various road accidents and the number of casualties is shown in Table 3 .

Table 3 Number of Road Traffic Accidents and Number of Dead and Wounded Persons

In the past three years, the average number of road accidents per hazardous chemical in China has caused 0 . Nine people were killed and one was injured. The consequences of the accident are very serious. Among these traffic accidents, there were 43 rear-end accidents , 38 side-turn accidents, 10 collision accidents , and 20 other accidents . Rear-end collisions and side-turns were the main causes of dangerous chemical traffic accidents. Thirty- one non-traffic accidents were caused mainly by tank tank leaks or failure of safety valves. Of the 14 non-road accidents, 3 occurred during maintenance, 2 occurred during refueling, and 9 occurred during loading and unloading.

Among the 34 accidents in the pipeline, there were 17 accidents due to the damage to the pipelines caused by the construction unit's construction. The 12 accidents were caused by the aging or corrosion of the pipeline itself.

4 . 3 Analysis of Hazardous Chemical Accidents Storage Links

2011--2013, China's hazardous chemical storage part of the accident were 53 cases, 19 people were killed. There were 19 explosions , 18 leakage accidents and 16 fire accidents . The causes of accidents in the storage of hazardous chemicals include: 1) Equipment aging. Including the aging of the valve or corrosion, leaking pipeline aging and so on. 2 environmental reasons. There were 4 water seepage accidents and 2 lightning accidents . 3 illegal operation.

4 . 4 Analysis of Sales, Use, and Abandonment of Hazardous Chemical Accidents

From 2011 to 2013 , there were 9 accidents , 46 incidents and 28 accidents in the sales, use, and disposal of dangerous chemicals in China , which are the three links in the number of accidents and casualties among the six major sectors. The number of accidents and the number of casualties were less than 10 % of the total.

Among them, sales and abandonment are relatively many aspects of the accident. Of the 9 sales accidents, 7 occurred at gas stations or filling stations, while the other two accidents occurred at chemical raw material sales points and chemical product sales offices. Of the 46 incidents in use, 28 were caused by leakage of liquefied gas and accounted for 60 . 8 % This is mainly due to people's misoperation, lack of necessary safety awareness, and illegal use. Among the 28 accidents involving abandonment, illegal stacking of discarded hazardous chemicals, aging of depleted chemical containers, and manual operation errors were the main causes of accidental hazardous chemicals accidents.

5 Countermeasures and Suggestions

According to the characteristics of the hazardous chemical accidents occurred in January 2011 - December 2013 period, proposed strategies and measures to prevent and reduce accidents.

1) Strengthen the monitoring of dangerous chemical accidents in multiple seasons and frequent occurrence periods, timely investigate and rectify potential safety hazards, and eliminate the occurrence of illegal and irregular behaviors.

2) For provinces with high risk of dangerous chemical accidents, it is necessary to strengthen the supervision of key links, major accidents, and key enterprises. Regularly rectify or eliminate outdated processes, technologies, and equipment that do not meet safety standards and endanger safety production.

3) It is necessary to strengthen the review of the qualification level of the employees in the production and operation units of hazardous chemicals, increase the intensity of safety training assessment work, and strictly control the safety awareness and professional quality of employees in all aspects of hazardous chemicals.

4) Encourage enterprises to adopt advanced and applicable processes, technologies and equipment. We will promote advanced monitoring technologies in the production, storage and transportation of hazardous chemicals to prevent accidents such as loss, leakage, pollution and explosion of hazardous chemicals.

6 conclusions

1) 2011--2013,

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