Although vitamins are in low demand, vitamins are involved in various metabolic processes in the body and are catalysts for various biochemical reactions in the body. The effect of each vitamin on animals is irreplaceable by any other substance. If the animal lacks vitamins, it will have obvious adverse effects on growth and development. Therefore, the vitamins that are lacking must be added to the daily feed for the body's needs.
1, the standard of vitamin feeding is the animal's demand for various vitamins
In the 1980s, China has established vitamin feeding standards for some animals, but it has not been updated for many years. The NRC (National Research Council) standard of the American Academy of Sciences is now available in a variety of categories and data. The NRC standard is the most basic requirement for vitamins in animals and can prevent significant vitamin deficiency. The optimal amount of animal vitamins formulated by some professional vitamin manufacturers such as Roche refers to the amount of animal that is optimally healthy and productive. The optimal amount of vitamins in Roche is generally several to several times higher than the NRC standard. Therefore, when designing and applying vitamin additives, the standard of raising vitamins should be reasonably determined, generally higher than the NRC standard. Roche can be used when conditions permit. The best demand standard. Consider the effects of various factors such as feed variety, animal health status, feeding environment, formula cost, storage time, etc., and grasp it flexibly and scientifically to meet the maximum demand for animal growth and development. Especially in animals under stress, the vitamin level of the feed should be increased.
2, appropriate over-application
Most of the vitamins are not stable, and it is easy to cause loss and decrease in potency during the processing and storage of the feed. In order to ensure that the animal eats enough vitamins, it should be added in excess, which is the added insurance factor of vitamins. Due to the different stability of different vitamins, the insurance factor is also inconsistent.
3, choose vitamin preparations
At present, the vitamin preparation has a single vitamin and a multi-vitamin premix. When applied, it can be determined according to the actual situation whether it is pre-mixed with a plurality of individual vitamins or a plurality of premixes. Small production units use more multi-vitamin premixes. Since the detection and quality judgment of vitamins is complicated, the products of professional manufacturers with good reputation should be selected.
4, pay attention to the effective content of vitamins, potency and stability
Most of the commercially available vitamins are not pure and 100, and vitamins such as vitamin E are mostly 50, choline chloride is 50, biotin is 2, and D-calcium pantothenate has only 50 activities. Therefore, when purchasing and applying vitamins, attention should be paid to their effective content and potency, and reasonable conversion. Different forms of vitamins of the same kind have different stability, such as vitamin A palmitate is more stable than vitamin A alcohol, vitamin E acetate is more stable than vitamin E alcohol, nitrothiamine is more stable than thiamine hydrochloride, vitamin C Polyphosphates are more stable than vitamin C. Therefore, in practical applications, it is necessary to use stable vitamins as much as possible.
5, pay attention to the independent addition of choline and vitamin C
Since choline and vitamin C are easy to absorb moisture and destroy other vitamins, they are generally not premixed with other vitamins and added separately when used. Commercially available multi-dimensional preparations are also mostly free of choline and vitamin C. For example, when multi-dimensional preparations are selected and used, it should be noted that appropriate amounts of choline and vitamin C are independently added according to feeding standards at the time of application.
6, flexible adjustment according to the actual situation
The feeding standard of vitamins should not be the same, but should be flexibly adjusted according to the actual formula, breeding environment, weather season and other factors to ensure the animal's demand for vitamins under actual conditions, to maintain a good state and production performance. For example, high calcium and phosphorus feeds should increase the levels of vitamin A and vitamin D to increase the absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus. During the breeding season, the content of vitamin E and biotin should be increased to maintain good reproductive performance. High temperature and stress should increase the level of multivitamins, especially vitamin C. Animals have symptoms of vitamin deficiency and should increase the level of vitamins.
7, necessary dilution and preservation
Vitamins are used in small amounts, and may react with each other and other additives to destroy the potency. Therefore, it is best to dilute a large number of dilutions before application, reduce the concentration, and premix with other vitamins and additives. Especially when premixed with choline, trace elements and acid-base additives, it should be diluted to ensure better mixing uniformity and higher potency. A commonly used carrier for vitamin dilution and premixing is defatted corn starch. Vitamin products are sensitive to external factors such as light and heat, and are prone to failure. Therefore, they should generally be stored in a low-temperature, closed, dry environment. It should be used as soon as possible after unsealing, and the storage period should generally not exceed one month.
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